Common causes of back pain and neck pain can be divided into acute common causes and chronic common causes.
ACUTE COMMON CAUSES OF BACK AND NECK PAIN
The most common cause of acute back or neck pain is a muscle injury, in which muscle fibres stretch too far and tear. Muscle injury may be caused by overuse, such as from heavy lifting, as well as by repetitive motions that put continual stress on the back or neck muscles.
Most muscle injuries alleviate within 6 weeks using treatments such as over-the-counter pain medicines, heat or ice therapy, or stretching exercises.
CHRONIC COMMON CAUSES OF BACK AND NECK PAIN
- Lumbar disc herniation. A herniated disc occurs when the soft, gel-like interior of the disc bulges or leaks outward, irritating nearby muscles, joints, or nerve roots. A herniated disc typically causes sharp, stabbing pain down to the back of the legs (sciatica), which is usually more pronounced than low back pain.
- Lumbar degenerative disc disease. Wear-and-tear on the spinal discs that cause chronic low back pain is called lumbar degenerative disc disease. This condition typically causes chronic, low-level low back pain that intermittently flares up for a few days or weeks before returning to normal.
- Osteoarthritis. Spinal osteoarthritis consists of wear-and-tear on the facet joints, causing excess friction when twisting or bending the spine. This friction can lead to bone spurs that pinch a nerve root and produce sciatica pain. Other symptoms include stiffness and tenderness around the joint.
- Sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The sacroiliac joint connects the hip bones (the ilia) to the sacrum, a triangular bone at the base of the spine. When the sacroiliac joint experiences too much or too little motion, it may cause pain in the hips, pelvis, and lower back.
- Spinal stenosis. Narrowing of the spinal canal due to a bone spur, herniated disc, or another irritant can cause leg pain (sciatica). While back pain may occur with spinal stenosis, it is usually not as severe as the leg pain caused by nerve root irritation.
- Isthmic spondylolisthesis. A spinal condition occurs when one vertebral body slips forward over the vertebra below it, straining the disc and joints at the spinal segment. Slippage is caused by a fracture in the back of the vertebrae. Low back pain, stiffness, and leg pain, numbness, and/or weakness are common symptoms of Isthmic spondylolisthesis. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/back-pain/causes/